Now we finally get the solution subspace. However, there is still one problem standing. But the actual list of close-by codewords is only a small set within that subspace. So we need some process to prune the subspace to narrow it down. Unfortunately it is not known how to improve the running time because we do not know how to improve the bound of the list size for folded Reed-Solomon code. We will talk about this briefly in next step.
By converting the problem of decoding a folded Reed—Solomon code into two linear systems, one linear system that is used for the interpolation step and another linear system to find the candidate solution subspace, the complexity of the decoding problem is successfully reduced to quadratic. However, in the worst case, the bound of list size of the output is pretty bad. Here we will expand our discussion. Dvir and Lovett improved the result based on the work of Guruswami, which can reduce the list size to a constant.
Here is only presented the idea that is used to prune the solution subspace. For the details of the prune process, please refer to papers by Guruswami, Dvir and Lovett, which are listed in the reference. If we don't consider the Step 3, this algorithm can run in quadratic time. A summary for this algorithm is listed below.
As unique as the cultures of Solomon Islands, so is the unique cultural handicraft made locally by Solomon Islanders especially that of Hellen Watena, from Auki, Malaita Province. You can find her under a colourful As a Top National Senior Commonwealth Acknowledges Solomon Government's Achievements.
Regional News All Regional News. Australia Continues to Invest in Pacific Skills. Sports News All Sports News. Solomon Islands U19 Makes it to Semi-finals. Rick Houenipwela is the current prime minister. During most of the period of British rule the territory was officially named "the British Solomon Islands Protectorate".
The definite article, "the", is not part of the country's official name but is sometimes used, both within and outside the country. Between and BC the ancestors of the Polynesians , the Lapita people, arrived from the Bismarck Archipelago with their characteristic ceramics.
Missionaries began visiting the Solomons in the midth century. They made little progress at first, because " blackbirding " the often brutal recruitment or kidnapping of labourers for the sugar plantations in Queensland and Fiji led to a series of reprisals and massacres. The evils of the slave trade prompted the United Kingdom to declare a protectorate over the southern Solomons in June In and , more outlying islands were added to the protectorate; in the remainder of the archipelago, an area previously under German jurisdiction , was transferred to British administration, apart from the islands of Buka and Bougainville , which remained under German administration as part of German New Guinea.
Traditional trade and social intercourse between the western Solomon Islands of Mono and Alu the Shortlands and the traditional societies in the south of Bougainville, however, continued without hindrance.
Missionaries settled in the Solomons under the protectorate, converting most of the population to Christianity. In the early 20th century several British and Australian firms began large-scale coconut planting. Economic growth was slow, however, and the islanders benefited little. Journalist Joe Melvin visited in , as part of his undercover investigation into blackbirding. In the islands were visited by Jack London , who was cruising the Pacific on his boat, the Snark. With the outbreak of the Second World War most planters and traders were evacuated to Australia and most cultivation ceased.
Some of the most intense fighting of the war occurred in the Solomons. The most significant of the Allied Forces' operations against the Japanese Imperial Forces was launched on 7 August , with simultaneous naval bombardments and amphibious landings on the Florida Islands at Tulagi  and Red Beach on Guadalcanal.
The Battle of Guadalcanal became an important and bloody campaign fought in the Pacific War as the Allies began to repulse Japanese expansion. Of strategic importance during the war were the coastwatchers operating in remote locations, often on Japanese held islands, providing early warning and intelligence of Japanese naval, army and aircraft movements during the campaign. Sergeant-Major Jacob Vouza was a notable coastwatcher who, after capture, refused to divulge Allied information in spite of interrogation and torture by Japanese Imperial forces.
He was awarded a Silver Star Medal by the Americans, which is the United States' third-highest decoration for valor in combat. Kennedy and his crew of the PT They suggested writing a rescue message on a coconut, and delivered the coconut by paddling a dugout canoe.
The coconut was later kept on Kennedy's desk when he became President of the United States. Of more than 36, Japanese on Guadalcanal, about 26, were killed or missing, 9, died of disease, and 1, were captured. Local councils were established in the s as the islands stabilised from the aftermath of the Second World War.
A new constitution was established in and elections were held, although the constitution was contested and a new one was created in In the first oil price shock occurred, and the increased cost of running a colony became apparent to British administrators. Following the independence of neighbouring Papua New Guinea from Australia in , the Solomon Islands gained self-government in Independence was granted on 7 July Commonly referred to as the tensions or the ethnic tension , the initial civil unrest was mainly characterised by fighting between the Isatabu Freedom Movement also known as the Guadalcanal Revolutionary Army and the Malaita Eagle Force as well as the Marau Eagle Force.
Although much of the conflict was between Guales and Malaitans, Kabutaulaka  and Dinnen argue that the 'ethnic conflict' label is an oversimplification. In late , militants on the island of Guadalcanal began a campaign of intimidation and violence towards Malaitan settlers.
During the next year, thousands of Malaitans fled back to Malaita or to the capital, Honiara which, although situated on Guadalcanal, is predominantly populated by Malaitans and Solomon Islanders from other provinces.
The reformist government of Bartholomew Ulufa'alu struggled to respond to the complexities of this evolving conflict. In late , the government declared a four-month state of emergency. There were also a number of attempts at reconciliation but to no avail. Ulufa'alu also requested assistance from Australia and New Zealand in but his appeal was rejected. In June , Ulufa'alu was kidnapped by militia members of the MEF who felt that, although he was a Malaitan, he was not doing enough to protect their interests.
Ulufa'alu subsequently resigned in exchange for his release. Manasseh Sogavare , who had earlier been Finance Minister in Ulufa'alu's government but had subsequently joined the opposition, was elected as Prime Minister by 23—21 over Rev. However Sogavare's election was immediately shrouded in controversy because six MPs thought to be supporters of Boseto were unable to attend parliament for the crucial vote Moore , n.
However, a key Guale militant leader, Harold Keke , refused to sign the agreement, causing a split with the Guale groups. Subsequently, Guale signatories to the agreement led by Andrew Te'e joined with the Malaitan-dominated police to form the 'Joint Operations Force'. During the next two years the conflict moved to the Weathercoast of Guadalcanal as the Joint Operations unsuccessfully attempted to capture Keke and his group.
Law and order deteriorated as the nature of the conflict shifted: The Department of Finance would often be surrounded by armed men when funding was due to arrive.
In December , Finance Minister Laurie Chan resigned after being forced at gunpoint to sign a cheque made out to some of the militants. Conflict also broke out in Western Province between locals and Malaitan settlers. Renegade members of the Bougainville Revolutionary Army BRA were invited in as a protection force but ended up causing as much trouble as they prevented.
The prevailing atmosphere of lawlessness, widespread extortion, and ineffective police prompted a formal request by the Solomon Islands Government for outside help. With the country bankrupt and the capital in chaos, the request was unanimously supported in Parliament. A sizeable international security contingent of 2, police and troops, led by Australia and New Zealand, and with representatives from about 20 other Pacific nations, began arriving the next month under Operation Helpem Fren.
Since this time some commentators have considered the country a failed state. In April , allegations that the newly elected Prime Minister Snyder Rini had used bribes from Chinese businessmen to buy the votes of members of Parliament led to mass rioting in the capital Honiara.
A deep underlying resentment against the minority Chinese business community led to much of Chinatown in the city being destroyed. China sent chartered aircraft to evacuate hundreds of Chinese who fled to avoid the riots. Evacuation of Australian and British citizens was on a much smaller scale.
Additional Australian, New Zealand and Fijian police and troops were dispatched to try to quell the unrest. Rini eventually resigned before facing a motion of no-confidence in Parliament, and Parliament elected Manasseh Sogavare as Prime Minister. On 2 April at A tsunami followed killing at least 52 people, destroying more than homes and leaving thousands of people homeless.
On February 6, , an earthquake with magnitude of 8. At least nine people were killed and many houses demolished. The main quake was preceded by a sequence of earthquakes with a magnitude of up to 6.
Solomon Islands is a constitutional monarchy and has a parliamentary system of government. Queen Elizabeth II is the Monarch of Solomon Islands and the head of state ; she is represented by the Governor-General who is chosen by the Parliament for a five-year term. There is a unicameral parliament of 50 members, elected for four-year terms. However, Parliament may be dissolved by majority vote of its members before the completion of its term.
Parliamentary representation is based on single-member constituencies. Suffrage is universal for citizens over age Each ministry is headed by a cabinet member, who is assisted by a permanent secretary , a career public servant who directs the staff of the ministry. Solomon Islands governments are characterised by weak political parties see List of political parties in Solomon Islands and highly unstable parliamentary coalitions. They are subject to frequent votes of no confidence , leading to frequent changes in government leadership and cabinet appointments.
Land ownership is reserved for Solomon Islanders. The law provides that resident expatriates, such as the Chinese and Kiribati , may obtain citizenship through naturalisation. Land generally is still held on a family or village basis and may be handed down from mother or father according to local custom. The islanders are reluctant to provide land for nontraditional economic undertakings, and this has resulted in continual disputes over land ownership.
No military forces are maintained by Solomon Islands although a police force of nearly includes a border protection unit. The police also are responsible for fire service, disaster relief, and maritime surveillance. The police force is headed by a commissioner, appointed by the governor-general and responsible to the prime minister. On 27 December , the Solomon Islands Government took steps to prevent the country's Australian police chief from returning to the Pacific nation.
On 12 January , Australia replaced its top diplomat expelled from Solomon Islands for political interference in a conciliatory move aimed at easing a four-month dispute between the two countries. On 13 December , Prime Minister Manasseh Sogavare was toppled by a vote of no confidence in Parliament,  following the defection of five ministers to the opposition.
C1 Solomon papers and mark schemes for Edexcel and OCR.
* Bellona murder accused in court * Lawyer wants time with client * Court to inquire into sexual offence case * Closing submissions in abduction case today.
The Solomon Papers provide a popular resource for maths revision papers and worksheets. Here you will find a list of papers for Edexcel. Maths Genie - A Level Exam Papers. Edexcel C1, C2, C3, C4, S1 and M1 Solomon Papers and Mark Schemes.
Here you will find an index of Solomon FP1 further maths practice papers and mark schemes for Edexcel. These papers are useful for extending your revision. Latest News Solomon Islands - So Much More If it weren’t for the potholes slowing us down on the road to Honiara, on Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands, I would have missed the sign that said Dolphin View Cottage, but our guide, Andrew, knew this road by .