Events of the period preceding the rebellion depicted a need for big political changes. In , Governor Bowdoin lost elections to John Hancock, whom he had defeated in all previous contentions.
The people were determined to get rid of every element of oppressive governance. He held official capacity in Lancaster and employed all possible resources, with the sole objective of monitoring how people related to the rebellion and stopping growth of the militia group.
Soon, they would start pursuing the agenda of delivering a federal government system to the American people.
America experienced a recession beginning in The government could not survive without extensive external funding let alone subsidizing public projects. They found that salvation could be achieved by demanding a tax increase. According to smith 6 , the taxation levels were not ethical. The government tried to exploit farmers and casual laborers, however; their efforts did not make much difference as such persons initially made less money than tax demands.
Therefore; the taxman made demands but did not receive equitable monies. Consequently, persons who failed to comply lost property and others were prosecuted in court. Government also owed to soldier. A currency circulation mess, where circulation did not match national wealth was not corrected by government. This led to further escalation of the already unpleasant situation. Crops did very well; farmers brought much harvest from the farms but attracted low market prices.
Most farmers did not meet their tax obligations and soon lost rights to continue farming on their land. The labor industry was also in a chaotic situation.
Few jobs were available for grab. An example of how the systems of checks and balances work was that the executive branch was able to assign someone to a specific position, but the legislative branch must approve it before that person was officially given the position.
The judicial branch was responsible for the court systems. A strong and steady government was finally constructed after all the hard work of the powerful politicians. Allan, and John Wyzalek.
Encyclopedia of American History: Facts On File, Inc. A Study in Causation. Levy and Kenneth L. Macmillan Reference USA, The unruly birth of democracy and the struggle to create America. An Episode in American State-Making. The Second Amendment of the United States Constitution states the rights to give citizens of America the right to bear arms.
This amendment was adopted with the rest of the other amendments, in the Bill of Rights. With that being said, there are many people out there that takes that amendment literally, and feel as if they should be able to own and have any The Supreme Court, which is the judicial arm of the government, functions as the interpreter and arbitrator of the Constitution of the US.
Essentially, the court rules, or adjudicates, on the previous rulings challenged for their constitutionality. Hence, the Supreme Court is the final court of appeal in the US from inferior federal courts or from state courts in case the constitutional issue is involved The right to speak freely was received on December 15, The right to speak freely is secured by the main correction in the Constitution of United States, which is the The organization constitution of malaysian is considered as the uncommon law in malaysia.
On January 4, , Governor Bowdoin proposed creating a privately funded militia army. While the government forces assembled, Shays and Day and other rebel leaders in the west organized their forces establishing regional regimental organizations that were run by democratically elected committees.
Their first major target was the federal armory in Springfield. He had done this despite the fact that the armory was federal property, not state, and he did not have permission from Secretary at War Henry Knox. The insurgents were organized into three major groups and intended to surround and attack the armory simultaneously. Shepard first ordered warning shots fired over the heads of Shays' men, and then he ordered two cannons to fire grape shot.
Four Shaysites were killed and 20 wounded. There was no musket fire from either side, and the rebel advance collapsed. General Lincoln immediately began marching west from Worcester with the 3, men that had been mustered. The rebels moved generally north and east to avoid him, eventually establishing a camp at Petersham, Massachusetts. They raided the shops of local merchants for supplies along the way and took some of the merchants hostage.
They surprised the rebel camp so thoroughly that the rebels scattered "without time to call in their out parties or even their guards". Most of the leadership escaped north into New Hampshire and Vermont, where they were sheltered despite repeated demands that they be returned to Massachusetts for trial. Lincoln's march marked the end of large-scale organized resistance.
Ringleaders who eluded capture fled to neighboring states, and pockets of local resistance continued. Some rebel leaders approached Lord Dorchester for assistance, the British governor of the Province of Quebec who reportedly promised assistance in the form of Mohawk warriors led by Joseph Brant.
The bills also authorized state payments to reimburse Lincoln and the merchants who had funded the army, and authorized the recruitment of additional militia. This bill forbade any acknowledged rebels from holding a variety of elected and appointed offices. Most of Lincoln's army melted away in late February as enlistments expired, and he commanded only 30 men at a base in Pittsfield by the end of the month.
They raided the shops of merchants and the homes of merchants and local professionals. This came to the attention of Brigadier John Ashley, who mustered a force of some 80 men and caught up with the rebels in nearby Sheffield late in the day for the bloodiest encounter of the rebellion: Four thousand people signed confessions acknowledging participation in the events of the rebellion in exchange for amnesty.
Several hundred participants were eventually indicted on charges relating to the rebellion, but most of these were pardoned under a general amnesty that only excluded a few ringleaders. Eighteen men were convicted and sentenced to death, but most of these were overturned on appeal, pardoned, or had the sentences commuted.
John Bly and Charles Rose, however, were hanged on December 6, Shays was pardoned in and he returned to Massachusetts from hiding in the Vermont woods. The crushing of the rebellion and the harsh terms of reconciliation imposed by the Disqualification Act all worked against Governor Bowdoin politically.
He received few votes from the rural parts of the state and was trounced by John Hancock in the gubernatorial election of The legislature cut taxes and placed a moratorium on debts and also refocused state spending away from interest payments, resulting in a percent decline in the value of Massachusetts securities as those payments fell in arrears. Vermont was an unrecognized independent republic that had been seeking independant statehood from New York's claims to the territory.
It became an unexpected beneficiary of the rebellion due to sheltering the rebel ringleaders. Alexander Hamilton broke from other New Yorkers, including major landowners with claims on Vermont territory, calling for the state to recognize and support Vermont's bid for admission to the union.
He cited Vermont's de facto independence and its ability to cause trouble by providing support to the discontented from neighboring states, and he introduced legislation that broke the impasse between New York and Vermont. Vermonters responded favorably to the overture, publicly pushing Eli Parsons and Luke Day out of the state but quietly continuing to support others.
Thomas Jefferson was serving as ambassador to France at the time and refused to be alarmed by Shays' Rebellion. He argued in a letter to James Madison on January 30, that occasional rebellion serves to preserve freedoms.
It is its natural manure. I know not where that influence is to be found, or, if attainable, that it would be a proper remedy for the disorders. Influence is not government. Let us have a government by which our lives, liberties, and properties will be secured, or let us know the worst at once.
At the time of the rebellion, the weaknesses of the federal government as constituted under the Articles of Confederation were apparent to many. A vigorous debate was going on throughout the states on the need for a stronger central government, with Federalists arguing for the idea, and Anti-Federalists opposing them. Historical opinion is divided on what sort of role the rebellion played in the formation and later ratification of the United States Constitution , although most scholars agree that it played some role, at least temporarily drawing some anti-Federalists to the strong government side.
By early , many influential merchants and political leaders were already agreed that a stronger central government was needed. Shortly after Shay's rebellion broke out, delegates from five states met in Annapolis, Maryland from September , , and they concluded that vigorous steps were needed to reform the federal government, but they disbanded because of a lack of full representation and authority, calling for a convention of all the states to be held in Philadelphia in May In early , John Jay wrote that the rural disturbances and the inability of the central government to fund troops in response made "the inefficiency of the Federal government more and more manifest".
Historian David Szatmary writes that the timing of the rebellion "convinced the elites of sovereign states that the proposed gathering at Philadelphia must take place". The convention that met in Philadelphia was dominated by strong-government advocates. The rebellion also played a role in the discussion of a number of the executives. While mindful of tyranny, delegates of the Constitutional Convention thought that the single executive would be more effective in responding to national disturbances.
Federalists cited the rebellion as an example of the confederation government's weaknesses, while opponents such as Elbridge Gerry thought that a federal response to the rebellion would have been even worse than that of the state. Gerry, a merchant speculator and Massachusetts delegate from Essex County, was one of the few convention delegates who refused to sign the new constitution, although his reasons for doing so did not stem from the rebellion.
When the constitution had been drafted, Massachusetts was viewed by Federalists as a state that might not ratify it, because of widespread anti-Federalist sentiment in the rural parts of the state. Massachusetts Federalists, including Henry Knox, were active in courting swing votes in the debates leading up to the state's ratifying convention in When the vote was taken on February 6, , representatives of rural communities involved in the rebellion voted against ratification by a wide margin, but the day was carried by a coalition of merchants, urban elites, and market town leaders.
The state ratified the constitution by a vote of to Historians are divided on the impact the rebellion had on the ratification debates. Robert Feer notes that major Federalist pamphleteers rarely mentioned it, and that some anti-Federalists used the fact that Massachusetts survived the rebellion as evidence that a new constitution was unnecessary. David Szatmary argues that debate in some states was affected, particularly in Massachusetts, where the rebellion had a polarizing effect.
Shays' Rebellion in and the Whiskey Rebellion in are examples of two brutal rebellions that led to the deaths of many innocent people. Rebellions can develop due .
Shay’s Rebellion was the revolt of Western Massachusetts farmers against their state legislature because they felt they were being unequally represented. The intention of this paper is to analyze the problems that led to Shays’ Rebellion and to describe the casual relationship it had with the ratification of the U. S. Constitution.
"Shays Rebellion" Essays and Research Papers Shays Rebellion Shay’s Rebellion was the revolt of Western Massachusetts farmers against their state legislature because they felt they were being unequally represented. This bankruptcy led to the loss of land and a great rebellion led by Daniel Shays. The Shay's rebellion was ended easily enough but it was the lack of national government that frightened people/5(2).
- SHAYS’S REBELLION AND THE U.S. CONSTITUTION Introduction Although not widely known, Shays’s Rebellion greatly impacted the debate on sovereignty and led many to conclude that the only possible solution was the centralization of . Themes & Essays. The Themes below provide a way of understanding each historic scene within the context of four different humanities themes. Select a scene (listed across the top of the screen) and move down the column to the theme you are interested in. Click the theme essay title to read the short essay; click a scene title to go to that scene.